为什么犹太人在第二次世界大战期间不假装不是犹太人以避免被处决?(Why didn’t the Jews pretend not to be Jews during World War II to avoid execution?)

 这个问题可能困惑了很多人,下面是Quora上最高赞回答(12.K)


The question seems to stem from the idea that Jews are defined by religion, not by race. Prior to Hitler, such had indeed been the case. In medieval Europe or in Tsarist Russia, a Jew converted to Christianity was no longer considered a Jew. Of course, such a person could be subjected to a more rigorous surveillance than an ordinary Christian (as, for instance, in post-Reconquista Spain) but if the conversion was perceived as genuine, the convert became a full-fledged member of the Christian society. Sometimes such new converts were over-zealous and even became very notorious Anti-Semites.

这个问题似乎源于这样一个观念:犹太人是由宗教而不是种族来定义的。在希特勒之前,确实是这样。在中世纪的欧洲或沙皇俄国,一个改信基督教的犹太人不再被认为是犹太人。当然,这样的人可能会受到比普通基督徒更严格的监视(例如,在《后征服西班牙》中),但如果这种转变被认为是真实的,那么这个转变者就成为了基督教社会的一个成熟成员。有时这种新的皈依者过于狂热,甚至成为非常臭名昭著的反犹分子。

However, it did not work this way under Adolf Hitler. For the Führer, the race was paramount and the belief was not. The Nuremberg laws enacted in 1935 contained a rigorous explanation who could be considered a Jew.

然而,在阿道夫·希特勒的领导下,它并没有这样做。对于元首来说,种族是最重要的,信仰不是。1935年颁布的纽伦堡法律包含了一个可以被视为犹太人的严格解释。

A person with three or four Jewish grandparents was deemed a Jew. A person with one or two Jewish grandparents was considered a Mischling (half-breed). Whether a Mischling was a Jew or not was determined by his or her behaviour. Marrying a Jew, being friends with Jews or showing any displeasure with the government made the person a Jew. Conversely, marrying a non-Jew and being very loyal to the government reduced the risks. Field Marshal Erhard Milch, commander of the Luftwaffe, was famously a half-Jew (but not necessarily a Jew according to the Nuremberg laws).

一个有三到四个犹太祖父母的人被认为是犹太人。一个有一两个犹太祖父母的人被认为是调皮的(混血儿)。调皮人是不是犹太人取决于他的行为。与犹太人结婚,与犹太人交朋友,或对政府表示不满,都使这个人成为犹太人。相反,嫁给一个非犹太人和非常忠诚于政府降低了风险。空军元帅埃哈德·米尔奇是著名的半犹太人(但根据纽伦堡法律,不一定是犹太人)。

In Germany, it was very difficult, if not impossible, to hide one’s Jewishness. The bureaucracy was powerful and the statistics almost perfect. A government official knew who your grandparents were and if three of them were Jews, your only hope was to escape the country as soon as possible. It could be different in other countries, where the bureaucracy was often less efficient and Nazis faced many different hurdles, such as quiet sabotage from the local civil or church authorities. They would often just ask Jews to come forward (and many did!) and then rely on local informants and physical characteristics such as circumcision. It should be taken into account that the scenario could be different in various occupied countries. In France, Nazis, while arresting Jews, often gave them the benefit of the doubt because they did not want to arrest a non-Jewish French person. In Poland or Russia, they were much less scrupulous.

在德国,要隐藏自己的犹太身份,即使不是不可能的,也是非常困难的。官僚主义很强大,统计数字几乎完美。一位政府官员知道你的祖父母是谁,如果他们中有三个是犹太人,你唯一的希望就是尽快逃离这个国家。在其他国家,情况可能有所不同,那里的官僚机构往往效率较低,纳粹面临着许多不同的障碍,例如来自当地民间或教会当局的暗中破坏。他们常常要求犹太人站出来(很多人都这样做了!)然后依靠当地线人和割礼等身体特征。应考虑到不同被占领国家的情况可能不同。在法国,纳粹在逮捕犹太人的同时,经常给他们带来怀疑的好处,因为他们不想逮捕一个非犹太人的法国人。在波兰或俄罗斯,他们不那么谨慎。

That’s why I will tell a story that happened in France, where it was much easier for a Jewish person to survive. It comes from The Bag of Marbles, an autobiographical novel written by Joseph Joffo.

这就是为什么我要讲一个发生在法国的故事,在那里犹太人更容易生存。它来自于约瑟夫·乔夫的自传体小说《大理石袋》。

When Nazis occupied Paris and ordered all Jews to wear a yellow star to make them easy to identify, a Jewish barber gathered his family together and told them that the only chance of survival was to separate, to go to another part of the country, and to conceal their identity. Remember – he told them – never tell anyone you are a Jew. Never. To anyone. Whether you trust this person or not.

当纳粹占领巴黎并命令所有犹太人佩戴黄星以便于辨认时,一个犹太理发师召集了他的家人,告诉他们唯一的生存机会是分开,去国家的另一个地方,并隐藏他们的身份。记住-他告诉我他们永远不要告诉任何人你是犹太人。从未。给任何人。不管你是否信任这个人。

Joseph, aged 10, went to Southern France, at first with his older brother Maurice (aged 12), then on his own. He survived by living in various places and doing all sorts of jobs – and never mentioning he was a Jew. He was circumcised, something he could not hide from doctors, so he pretended he had a phimosis. One of the doctors was very inquisitive. Now, it is absurd. So many boys in France pretend they had phimosis. Tell me the truth. I am your friend. I will not denounce you. But no matter how the doctor insisted, Joseph never gave in. He wanted to, but he remembered the words of his father.

10岁的约瑟夫先是和哥哥莫里斯(12岁)一起去了法国南部,然后自己去了。他靠生活在不同的地方和做各种各样的工作来生存,而且从未提及他是犹太人。他接受了包皮环切术,这是他无法向医生隐瞒的,所以他假装有包茎。其中一个医生很好奇。现在,这很荒谬。在法国有那么多男孩假装他们有包茎。告诉我真相。我是你的朋友。我不会谴责你的。但无论医生怎么坚持,约瑟夫都没有屈服。他想去,但他记得他父亲的话。

In 1944, Joseph, now aged 14, was living on a farm where he was doing field work for his landlord. The farmer, a Nazi sympathiser, never suspected Joseph was a Jew. Every evening he would tell him how Jews were responsible for all the evils in the world and if they kill half of the Jews, the other half will hopefully understand something. Sometimes Joseph started to ask himself whether he was really evil just because he was a Jew. The things were even more complicated for the teen because he was hopelessly in love with the landlord’s daughter.

1944年,约瑟夫,现在14岁,住在一个农场里,他在那里为他的房东做田间工作。这位农民是纳粹的同情者,从不怀疑约瑟夫是犹太人。每天晚上,他都会告诉他犹太人是如何对世界上所有的罪恶负责的,而且如果他们杀死了一半的犹太人,另一半很有希望理解一些事情。有时,约瑟夫开始问自己,他是否真的是邪恶的,仅仅因为他是一个犹太人。对这个年轻人来说,事情更加复杂,因为他无可救药地爱上了房东的女儿。

But when the Germans retreated, the village was occupied by the French partisans. They asked the locals who was the main Nazi in the village and, being told about Joseph’s landlord, promptly built a gibbet to hang him. It was then that Joseph came forward and said: I am a Jew! This man pretended to be a Nazi sympathizer because he was hiding me!

但当德国人撤退时,这个村庄被法国游击队占领了。他们问当地人谁是村里的主要纳粹分子,并被告知约瑟夫的房东,迅速建立了绞刑架挂他。这时,约瑟夫走上前说:“我是犹太人!这个人假装是纳粹的同情者,因为他把我藏起来了!

The farmer was released. And Joseph Joffo says he saved him neither out of nobility of character nor out of love for his daughter. I just wished this man to know, until the very end of his life, that he is alive only because a Jew saved his hide.

农夫被释放了。约瑟夫乔夫说,他既没有出于品格高贵,也没有出于对女儿的爱而救了他。我只是希望这个人知道,直到他生命的最后,他活着只是因为一个犹太人救了他的藏身之所。


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